HOW CANNABIS WORKS – A Rudimentary Look At The Endocannabinoid System

Before we get started, this article has its very own video counterpart, so if a video presentation on this topic appeals to you more then you’re in luck! Otherwise read on…

Cannabis has been used as a medicinal herb for a very long time indeed. A great deal of wisdom has amassed in numerous cultures about its multitude of therapeutic benefits, yet how it actually takes effect on a cellular level is something that has been apprehended only recently.

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How To Make Chaga Mushroom Tea – The Proper Way

Chaga mushroom is a fungal sclerotia that grows most commonly on Birch trees within the circumpolar region of the northern hemisphere. It has been used as a folk medicine for centuries, primarily as an immune booster, remedy for digestive and respiratory ailments and an overall vitality tonic. It has now been studied extensively and proven to contain a wide array of different nutrients and medicinal constituents that can provide us with A LOT of health benefits.

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A Forest Mushroom Walk…

Throughout the temperate regions of this planet, a walk through the forest during Autumn is likely to present a magestic, ‘bemushroomed’ landscape to those paying attention. It can unearth sensations within us that we may have neglected to acknowledge since early childhood – feelings of being in a real-life fairytale or some magical fantasy epic. Connecting with our natural surroundings during periods of seasonal transition can genuinely enliven the senses and activate even the dustiest of imaginations… it can provide genuine medicine for the spirit!

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Health Benefits of Cordyceps

Cordyceps is one of the most highly prized natural medicines on Earth. It is ranked as valuable and effective as wild Ginseng, Reishi Mushroom and Deer Antler. Cordyceps parasitises insects by firstly taking control of the hosts nervous system and moving to a more suitable location to release reproductive spores. This behaviour contributes enormously to the biodiversity of the surrounding natural environment, and there are many different types of Cordyceps that live in a large variety of different ecosystems, and each type of Cordyceps focuses solely on a single species of insect.

Cordyceps Sinensis is native to the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding Himalayan regions of India, Nepal and Bhutan and parasitises the larvae of Ghost Moths, which is why it has been popularly labelled as the “caterpillar fungus”. The Tibetan name for it is “Yartsa Gunbu”, which literally translates as “summer grass, winter worm”. Himalayan Cordyceps affects larvae that are hibernating 6 inches below soil level by ensuring their heads are vertically upright so that when the fruiting body of the mushroom is produced, it can penetrate the soil and extend upwards, releasing spores to be carried and dispersed by alpine winds. By the time the fruiting body has fully matured, it has completely replaced all of the original tissue of the host organism. So although Himalayan Cordyceps may look exactly like a caterpillar with a slightly twisted club emerging from its head, the body of the caterpillar is now 100% made up of fungal cells – it contains no original tissue whatsoever.

Wild Tibetan Coprdyceps
Wild Tibetan Cordyceps

Cordyceps has been used as a potent medicinal substance since antiquity – a privilege that was enjoyed exclusively by royalty and noblemen throughout the ages right up until very recent history. In Tibetan Medicine it is used for people with kidney and heart weakness and to enhance fertility in both men and women. In traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps is revered for its ability to regenerate both the yin & yang aspects of our primordial essence – our jing. Jing is an energetic phenomenon that is considered to be the subtlest and most refined aspect of the physical body. On the one hand it represents our youthfulness, resilience and ability to heal (yin), and on the other hand it is our core vitality that allows us to be active in the world and fulfil our purpose in this life (yang), maintaining our lustre without wilting from stress and disease. So Cordyceps is believed to replenish this most subtle essence while enabling us to put it to use without the risk of running our batteries too low. It is used to help people recover from over-exertion – it restores energy at the deepest level and allows us to adapt to the many stressors we encounter in life with minimal negative impact. This is why Cordyceps is famed for its anti-aging properties, and also why it is such a potent tonic for the kidneys, because the kidneys are considered to be the ‘containers’ of this jing essence.

Our jing is also what offers us the potential to reproduce – if we have a strong sense of vitality we will produce robust and vibrant offspring. Decreased jing however indicates weakness in our genetic lineage, and if this essence becomes too depleted we may not be able to reproduce at all. Cordyceps has long been used as a remedy for impotence, infertility and frigidity – it can restore our spent sexual vigour and act as an effective aphrodisiac.

As a qi tonic Cordyceps improves appetite and digestion, fortifies immunity and offers incredible respiratory support by increasing lung capacity and dilating the alveoli, and consequently enhancing oxygen absorption and utilisation on a cellular level. This makes it a powerful ally for those with general respiratory weakness, wheezing and chest tightness or people living with asthma or chronic bronchitis. This is also one reason why Cordyceps possesses such a formidable reputation as one of the greatest performance enhancing herbs, but also because it strengthens the lower back, hips, knees and ankles. It increases our physical endurance, enhances healing and recovery and has been used as a tonic for athletes and those who are very active physically. This is in fact how knowledge of Cordyceps first began to permeate the western world, because three female athletes broke 5 world records for track running at the Beijing National Games in 1993. This phenomenal achievement attracted suspicion, particularly because all three athletes were on the same team, however they all tested negative for narcotics. When questioned, their coach explained that the team had been consuming daily doses of a herbal formula as part of their training, and the primary herb in that formula was Cordyceps.

Cordyceps Sinensis
Cordyceps Sinensis

Traditionally it has also been used for enhancing mental clarity and improving focus and concentration, building mental stamina and allowing people to rest their attention on a single subject/object for extended periods of time without the usual signs of fatigue and exhaustion. This has also made it an invaluable support for meditation – especially lengthy retreats that require the individual to remain in focused contemplation for many hours at a time.

Since being subject to the modern scrutiny of scientific analysis, it has proven to share many genuine health benefits with us such as:

  • modulating the immune system by enhancing the activity of macrophages & natural killer cells
  • regulating blood sugar
  • possesses unique polysaccharides (cordycepic acids) that inhibit tumour growth of a number of different types of cancer including leukaemia
  • protects against a wide range of pathogenic organisms including lyme
  • an effective antiviral that is used to treat HIV
  • inhibiting cholesterol build-up within the heart/aorta
  • dilating blood vessels while under stress
  • improves physical endurance/anti-fatigue
  • improves respiratory function & increases lung capacity
  • significantly improves sexual function in both men & women
  • high antioxidant content
  • excellent tonic for the heart, liver, kidneys and lungs

So much of the ancient wisdom of this rare and precious substance has been validated through contemporary scientific studies, which has led to a dramatic increase in its demand throughout much of the world. As a consequence the wild-harvesting of Cordyceps throughout the Himalayas is closely monitored for the purpose of sustainability, although illegal poaching remains an unfortunate reality. Wild Cordyceps revenue now contributes the largest annual income for native Tibetan people and so there are many sides to this story – it is an important part of the culture and economy of Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan, but harvesting restrictions must be enforced if Cordyceps is to prevail in its natural environment. It is totally possible for it to continue thriving in the wild if harvesting and retail limits are honoured and respected, but this remains a very sensitive issue as Cordyceps is such an important natural resource with very high economic value throughout the Himalayas.

There are now cultivated varieties of Cordyceps available – most notably the CS-4 variety – which are very good and exhibit many of the same benefits as the wild fungus, although growing methods of many producers are unfortunately less than excellent. CS-4 is ultimately the best quality and most trusted form of this cultivated mushroom. The wild Tibetan variety is still considered to be the best, most effective Cordyceps in the world, and is by far the most expensive. Many of the eastern healing traditions consider that a great deal of this mushrooms’ power comes from the fact that it is from both plant and animal origin – it contains concentrated energies from both of these kingdoms, plus a lot of the potency is believed to emanate from the ‘wildness’ of the organism. This is something that cannot be said for the cultivated variety, as manually infecting the host insects with spores has never been successfully achieved, so the cultivated variety is grown on a substrate of cooked soybeans or grain slurry. This makes the cultivated variety 100% sustainable though, and a lot cheaper.

So Cordyceps has been revered as a sacred and majestic substance that can offer profound healing potential to those that consume it – a belief that has been intimately witnessed through and verified by the scientific lens during more recent history. It is a powerful tonic for the kidneys, lungs, liver and heart and can restore our core vitality at the deepest level, raising fertility, affording us protection from disease, supporting recovery from illness and injury, and increasing our adaptability to the trials and stresses of modern life.

Saving People From Death


Some of today’s holistic healthcare practitioners need to wake the fuck up. Perceiving longevity as merely the extension of this life is a “grave” mistake, especially when working with people that are rapidly approaching the end of a terminal illness. Of course healing may always be a possibility even at such a late stage and should be actively pursued at all costs, but often the best and only medicine takes the form of spiritual practice – supporting the individual to let go of their attachment to this life and embrace death as a normal and necessary part of living. Preparation for death can make the world of difference in regards to suffering and to any experiences that may follow once the process of death is well underway.

Palliative care is very much absent in today’s ‘alternative’ health scene, maybe because so many of us believe that EVERYTHING can be healed physically, that death is somehow bad or perhaps because the human ego places a great deal of importance in the glory of ‘saving’ people, rather than understanding when we need to help them let go of this life and move on.

Fighting to survive is a noble path, but knowing when to let go is true wisdom. I hope that more people begin to understand the multi-faceted nature of healing and that longevity doesn’t only apply to the duration of this life, but to all subsequent experiences that follow it. Preparing for life beyond death is truly the measure of a ‘healthy’ mind. Teaching people to go to war with their own death is a disease in itself, and a fear that will likely persist long after the individual has passed on.

Pine Pollen – A Powerful Herbal Ally

Over the last few years I have developed a very intimate and powerful herbal alliance with pine trees – in particular the pollen that they produce for just a few weeks every Springtime. Pine pollen has supported my own healing journey immensely and is now a staple source of food and medicine in our household. Just about every part of the pine tree has medicinal value – the needles, bark, seeds and sap, although the richest concentration of nutrients and medicinal compounds is found within the pollen. Pine pollen has been used in China and the east for millennia but has only recently come into focus in the west as a potent adaptogen and superfood.


There are many different species of pine, and all of them offer a similar degree of nutrition and medicine, but the sheer potency of the pollen is really the result of the pine’s evolutionary longevity and ability to adapt to any change they have encountered. Pines have been crafting and perfecting their ecological role for more than 150 million years and have now comfortably established themselves in a variety of different climates all throughout the northern hemisphere and even some areas further south. Their ability to reproduce and proliferate is unrivalled in the plant kingdom, which is where the outright abundance of annually produced pollen comes into play. The flowers of the pine tree – the catkins – produce all of the pollen which is in fact the ‘male semen’ of the tree (a clue to the species name Pinus!) which inseminates the ‘female’ cones through wind pollination so that the cones can mature and produce what we know as “pine nuts” – the tiny seeds that will ultimately grow into towering new trees. 

As pines are wind pollinated they have evolved to produce an enormity of pollen each season so that the cones have every chance of becoming fertilised. An adult pine tree produces 2 to 3 kilos of tiny, microscopic pollen grains throughout the brief pollen season, which if multiplied by an entire forest often results in countless tons of pollen spread throughout the entire ecosystem! Pines have evolved to produce way more pollen than they actually need, firstly to ensure propagation of their seeds but also because they are a keystone species of diverse forest ecosystems – a species that many other plants and animals have come to depend upon. People everywhere tend to find the coating of their neighbourhoods with fine yellow pollen dust actually very annoying, with little regard for the fact that it is actually one of the most deeply nourishing and profoundly health promoting substances on Earth!

Red Pine Pollen

From a health perspective, pine pollen is one of the most complete sources of nutrition found anywhere. It is a complete source of protein with all 8 ‘essential’ amino acids plus others. It contains omega 3 fats (ALA) as well as vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B9. It also contains fat soluble vitamins A (bet carotene), E and D – pine pollen contains both vitamin D2 and the bioactive D3 which is exceptionally rare for a plant. It also possesses an impressive array of important trace minerals, immune-enhancing polysaccharides, methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), DNA building nucleic acids, live enzymes and a mass of antioxidants. It actually stimulates the production of our body’s own endogenous antioxidants glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD).

The thing that pine pollen has become most renowned for in the west in recent years is its role as a powerful phyto-androgen – a plant that contains steroid-like compounds that are identical to testosterone and other androgenic hormones like DHEA and progesterone amongst others. This makes pine pollen a powerful medicine for the endocrine system, especially for those advancing beyond middle age whose levels of serum androgen hormones are rapidly decreasing. That said, low androgens and estrogen dominance are now increasingly more common in men and women of all ages – and even some children – from our cultural obsession with estrogen-mimicking soft plastics (xeno estrogen’s), non-organic agricultural foods grown with petrochemical additives and plant foods like unfermented soya products (phyto estrogen’s). These estrogen-like substances bind to hormone receptors in the body and can cause all kinds of problems, from increasing femininity in boys/men and increasing the risk of certain cancers in both men and women. Pine pollen has proven to be an invaluable strategy in helping us navigate the consequences of these things, but it has so much more to offer us than its androgen boosting properties alone…

It is a powerful adaptogen – a herb that supports our ability to adapt to stress and therefore reduce the unwanted toll that stress takes on us over the course of time – which is clearly the result of the tree’s ceaseless endurance and ability to adapt to an ever-changing environment – a quality that it offers to us as a gift through its reproductive pollen. It also has the ability to increase levels of important neurotransmitters such as dopamine – a chemical that acts as part of the brains reward mechanism and helps us to manage stress as well as concentrate, learn new things and experience equanimity. It also enhances immune function from the polysaccharides and mass of antioxidants, stimulates the regeneration of the liver and even possesses a number of anti-tumour compounds. Studies have also shown pine pollen to offer a lot of anti-inflammatory support and pain relief, not least for chronic arthritis. Pine pollen could also be a viable line of defence against much of the atmospheric radiation that is now travelling the globe from incidents like the Fukushima disaster. It is so rich in trace minerals that it can inhibit radioactive isotopes from binding to enzyme receptors, and it’s so saturated in powerful antioxidants that it can stop and reverse the cellular degradation that accompanies radiation exposure, and even EMF exposure from mobile phones and internet devices that are so unavoidable nowadays.

This is truly incredible medicine that is available to pretty much everyone in the northern hemisphere. If only people knew that this irritating yellow dust that carpeted everything for a few weeks each Spring could provide them with such immense benefit! When we buy pine pollen products we will either be buying it as a powder or an alcohol extract/tincture. The powder is extremely versatile and can be used as a superfood powder for smoothies and recipes, and it makes a great flour, soup thickener and is amazing in home-made desserts! It is perfectly safe for everyone to consume – men, women and children of all ages. The powder is deeply nourishing but doesn’t pack the same hormonal punch as the tincture since all of the hormonal sterols in pine pollen are alcohol soluble. This is why the tincture is not really suitable for children as they generally don’t need the increase in androgen hormones. The tincture still provides many of the other benefits but is much more medicinal when compared to the powder, which can be treated more like a food.

Pine pollen is coming to us at this time with an arsenal of much needed health benefits. It really is a powerful herbal ally – an alliance that more and more people are embracing as they deepen their relationship to pine pollen and experience its diverse majesty.